MMP21 is mutated in human heterotaxy and is required for normal left-right asymmetry in vertebrates.
Guimier A, Gabriel GC, Bajolle F, Tsang M, Liu H, Noll A, Schwartz M, El Malti R, Smith LD, Klena NT, Jimenez G, Miller NA, Oufadem M, Moreau de Bellaing A, Yagi H, Saunders CJ, Baker CN, Di Filippo S, Peterson KA, Thiffault I, Bole-Feysot C, Cooley LD, Farrow EG, Masson C, Schoen P, Deleuze JF, Nitschké P, Lyonnet S, de Pontual L, Murray SA, Bonnet D, Kingsmore SF, Amiel J, Bouvagnet P, Lo CW, Gordon CT.
2016 Mar 7
Heterotaxy results from a failure to establish normal left-right asymmetry early in embryonic development. By whole-exome sequencing, whole-genome sequencing and high-throughput cohort resequencing, we identified recessive mutations in MMP21 (encoding matrix metallopeptidase 21) in nine index cases with heterotaxy. In addition, Mmp21-mutant mice and mmp21-morphant zebrafish displayed heterotaxy and abnormal cardiac looping, respectively, suggesting a new role for extracellular matrix remodeling in the establishment of laterality in vertebrates.