Celiac disease (CeD), defined as gluten-induced enteropathy, is a frequent and largely underdiagnosed disease. Diagnosis relies on the detection of highly specific serum IgA anti-transglutaminase auto-antibodies and on the demonstration of duodenal villous atrophy. Treatment necessitates a strict gluten-free diet, which resolves symptoms and enables histological recovery. However, regular follow-up is necessary to assess mucosal healing, which emerges as an important prognostic factor. Recent work on CeD pathogenesis has highlighted how the cross-talk between gluten-specific CD4 + T cells and interleukin-15 can activate cytotoxic intraepithelial lymphocytes and trigger epithelial lesions. Moreover, acquisition by a subset of intraepithelial lymphocytes of somatic gain-of-function mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway was shown to be a decisive step in the progression toward lymphomas complicating CeD, thus opening new therapeutic perspectives for these rare but life-threatening complications.