Recent advances in the understanding and therapeutic management of mastocytosis.
Rossignol J, Polivka L, Maouche-Chrétien L, Frenzel L, Dubreuil P, Hermine O.
2019 Jan 1
Mastocytosis is a rare disease due to the abnormal accumulation of mast cells in various tissues. Its clinical presentation is heterogeneous depending on mast cell infiltration and mediators release. In some cases, it is associated with hematological malignancies. Prognosis varies from very good with a life expectancy similar to the general population in indolent forms of the disease to a survival time of just a few months in mast cell leukemia. Although in most cases a somatic KIT D816V mutation is found in tumor mast cells, the physiopathology of the disease is not yet fully understood. Additional germline and somatic mutations may explain this heterogeneity. Treatments aim at blocking effect of mast cell mediators, reducing mast cell activation and tumor burden. New drugs mainly directed against the tyrosine kinase activity of KIT have dramatically changed the quality of life and prognosis of mast cell diseases. Present and future therapeutic strategies are discussed in this review.