Auto-antibodies to type I IFNs can underlie adverse reactions to yellow fever live attenuated vaccine.

Bastard P, Michailidis E, Hoffmann HH, Chbihi M, Le Voyer T, Rosain J, Philippot Q, Seeleuthner Y, Gervais A, Materna M, de Oliveira PMN, Maia MLS, Dinis Ano Bom AP, Azamor T, Araújo da Conceição D, Goudouris E, Homma A, Slesak G, Schäfer J, Pulendran B, Miller JD, Huits R, Yang R, Rosen LB, Bizien L, Lorenzo L, Chrabieh M, Erazo LV, Rozenberg F, Jeljeli MM, Béziat V, Holland SM, Cobat A, Notarangelo LD, Su HC, Ahmed R, Puel A, Zhang SY, Abel L, Seligman SJ, Zhang Q, MacDonald MR, Jouanguy E, Rice CM, Casanova JL.

Source : J Exp Med

2021 Apr 5

Pmid : 33544838


Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.

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