The first wave of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (firstOPCs) and most GABAergic interneurons share common embryonic origins. Cortical firstOPCs are thought to be replaced by other OPC populations shortly after birth, maintaining a consistent OPC density and making postnatal interactions between firstOPCs and ontogenetically-related interneurons unlikely. Challenging these ideas, we show that a cortical firstOPC subpopulation survives and forms functional cell clusters with lineage-related interneurons. Favored by a common embryonic origin, these clusters display unexpected preferential synaptic connectivity and are anatomically maintained after firstOPCs differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. While the concomitant rescue of interneurons and firstOPCs committed to die causes an exacerbated neuronal inhibition, it abolishes interneuron-firstOPC high synaptic connectivity. Further, the number of other oligodendroglia populations increases through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism, impacting myelination. These findings demonstrate unprecedented roles of interneuron and firstOPC apoptosis in regulating lineage-related cell interactions and the homeostatic oligodendroglia density.