Dynamic Formation of Microvillus Inclusions During Enterocyte Differentiation in Munc18-2-Deficient Intestinal Organoids.

Mosa MH, Nicolle O, Maschalidi S, Sepulveda FE, Bidaud-Meynard A, Menche C, Michels BE, Michaux G, de Saint Basile G, Farin HF.

Source : Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol

2019 Apr 29

Pmid : 30364784

Abstract

Background & Aims: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a congenital intestinal malabsorption disorder caused by defective apical vesicular transport. Existing cellular models do not fully recapitulate this heterogeneous pathology. The aim of this study was to characterize 3-dimensional intestinal organoids that continuously generate polarized absorptive cells as an accessible and relevant model to investigate MVID.

Methods: Intestinal organoids from Munc18-2/Stxbp2-null mice that are deficient for apical vesicular transport were subjected to enterocyte-specific differentiation protocols. Lentiviral rescue experiments were performed using human MUNC18-2 variants. Apical trafficking and microvillus formation were characterized by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Spinning disc time-lapse microscopy was used to document the lifecycle of microvillus inclusions.

Results: Loss of Munc18-2/Stxbp2 recapitulated the pathologic features observed in patients with MUNC18-2 deficiency. The defects were fully restored by transgenic wild-type human MUNC18-2 protein, but not the patient variant (P477L). Importantly, we discovered that the MVID phenotype was correlated with the degree of enterocyte differentiation: secretory vesicles accumulated already in crypt progenitors, while differentiated enterocytes showed an apical tubulovesicular network and enlarged lysosomes. Upon prolonged enterocyte differentiation, cytoplasmic F-actin-positive foci were observed that further progressed into classic microvillus inclusions. Time-lapse microscopy showed their dynamic formation by intracellular maturation or invagination of the apical or basolateral plasma membrane.

Conclusions: We show that prolonged enterocyte-specific differentiation is required to recapitulate the entire spectrum of MVID. Primary organoids can provide a powerful model for this heterogeneous pathology. Formation of microvillus inclusions from multiple membrane sources showed an unexpected dynamic of the enterocyte brush border.

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