Early mandibular morphological differences in patients with FGFR2 and FGFR3-related syndromic craniosynostoses: A 3D comparative study

A Morice 1 , R Cornette 2 , A Giudice 3 , C Collet 4 , G Paternoster 5 , É Arnaud 5 , E Galliani 6 , A Picard 6 , L Legeai-Mallet 7 , R H Khonsari 8

Source : Bone 2020

Pmid : 32822871

Abstract

Syndromic craniosynostoses are defined by the premature fusion of one or more cranial and facial sutures, leading to skull vault deformation, and midfacial retrusion. More recently, mandibular shape modifications have been described in FGFR-related craniosynostoses, which represent almost 75% of the syndromic craniosynostoses. Here, further characterisation of the mandibular phenotype in FGFR-related craniosynostoses is provided in order to confirm mandibular shape modifications, as this could contribute to a better understanding of the involvement of the FGFR pathway in craniofacial development. The aim of our study was to analyse early mandibular morphology in a cohort of patients with FGFR2- (Crouzon and Apert) and FGFR3- (Muenke and Crouzonodermoskeletal) related syndromic craniosynostoses. We used a comparative geometric morphometric approach based on 3D imaging. Thirty-one anatomical landmarks and eleven curves with sliding semi-landmarks were defined to model the shape of the mandible. In total, 40 patients (12 with Crouzon, 12 with Apert, 12 with Muenke and 4 with Crouzonodermoskeletal syndromes) and 40 age and sex-matched controls were included (mean age: 13.7 months ±11.9). Mandibular shape differed significantly between controls and each patient group based on geometric morphometrics. Mandibular shape in FGFR2-craniosynostoses was characterized by open gonial angle, short ramus height, and high and prominent symphysis. Short ramus height appeared more pronounced in Apert than in Crouzon syndrome. Additionally, narrow inter-condylar and inter-gonial distances were observed in Crouzon syndrome. Mandibular shape in FGFR3-craniosynostoses was characterized by high and prominent symphysis and narrow inter-gonial distance. In addition, narrow condylar processes affected patients with Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome. Statistical analysis of variance showed significant clustering of Apert and Crouzon, Crouzon and Muenke, and Apert and Muenke patients (p < 0.05). Our results confirm distinct mandibular shapes at early ages in FGFR2- (Crouzon and Apert syndromes) and FGFR3-related syndromic craniosynostoses (Muenke and Crouzonodermoskeletal syndromes) and reinforce the hypothesis of genotype-phenotype correspondence concerning mandibular morphology.

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