Migration Speed of Cajal-Retzius Cells Modulated by Vesicular Trafficking Controls the Size of Higher-Order Cortical Areas.
Barber M, Arai Y, Morishita Y, Vigier L, Causeret F, Borello U, Ledonne F, Coppola E, Contremoulins V, Pfrieger FW, Tissir F, Govindan S, Jabaudon D, Proux-Gillardeaux V, Galli T, Pierani A.
2016 Aug 22
In the neocortex, higher-order areas are essential to integrate sensory-motor information and have expanded in size during evolution. How higher-order areas are specified, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the migration and distribution of early-born neurons, the Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), controls the size of higher-order areas in the mouse somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortex. Using live imaging, genetics, and in silico modeling, we show that subtype-specific differences in the onset, speed, and directionality of CR migration determine their differential invasion of the developing cortical surface. CR migration speed is cell autonomously modulated by vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3), a classically non-neuronal mediator of endosomal recycling. Increasing CR migration speed alters their distribution in the developing cerebral cortex and leads to an expansion of postnatal higher-order areas and congruent rewiring of thalamo-cortical input. Our findings thus identify novel roles for neuronal migration and VAMP3-dependent vesicular trafficking in cortical wiring.