A monocyte/dendritic cell molecular signature of SARS-CoV-2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with severe myocarditis.

de Cevins C, Luka M, Smith N, Meynier S, Magérus A, Carbone F, García-Paredes V, Barnabei L, Batignes M, Boullé A, Stolzenberg MC, Pérot BP, Charbit B, Fali T, Pirabakaran V, Sorin B, Riller Q, Abdessalem G, Beretta M, Grzelak L, Goncalves P, Di Santo JP, Mouquet H, Schwartz O, Zarhrate M, Parisot M, Bole-Feysot C, Masson C, Cagnard N, Corneau A, Brunaud C, Zhang SY, Casanova JL, Bader-Meunier B, Haroche J, Melki I, Lorrot M, Oualha M, Moulin F, Bonnet D, Belhadjer Z, Leruez M, Allali S, Gras-Leguen C, de Pontual L, Fischer A, Duffy D, Rieux-Laucat F, Toubiana J, Ménager MM.

Source :

Med (N Y)

2021 Sep 10

Pmid / DOI:



Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is generally milder than in adults, but a proportion of cases result in hyperinflammatory conditions often including myocarditis.

Methods: To better understand these cases, we applied a multiparametric approach to the study of blood cells of 56 children hospitalized with suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Plasma cytokine and chemokine levels and blood cellular composition were measured, alongside gene expression at the bulk and single-cell levels.

Findings: The most severe forms of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 that resulted in myocarditis were characterized by elevated levels of pro-angiogenesis cytokines and several chemokines. Single-cell transcriptomics analyses identified a unique monocyte/dendritic cell gene signature that correlated with the occurrence of severe myocarditis characterized by sustained nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signaling and associated with decreased gene expression of NF-κB inhibitors. We also found a weak response to type I and type II interferons, hyperinflammation, and response to oxidative stress related to increased HIF-1α and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.

Conclusions: These results provide potential for a better understanding of disease pathophysiology.

Funding: Agence National de la Recherche (Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Imagine, grant ANR-10-IAHU-01; Recherche Hospitalo-Universitaire, grant ANR-18-RHUS-0010; Laboratoire d'Excellence ''Milieu Intérieur," grant ANR-10-LABX-69-01; ANR-flash Covid19 "AIROCovid" and "CoVarImm"), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), and the "URGENCE COVID-19" fundraising campaign of Institut Pasteur.

See publication

All publications