Mutations in PERP Cause Dominant and Recessive Keratoderma.
Duchatelet S, Boyden LM, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Zhou J, Guibbal L, Hu R, Lim YH, Bole-Feysot C, Nitschké P, Santos-Simarro F, de Lucas R, Milstone LM, Gildenstern V, Helfrich YR, Attardi LD, Lifton RP, Choate KA, Hovnanian A.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
2019 Dec 5
Investigation of genetic determinants of Mendelian skin disorders has substantially advanced understanding of epidermal biology. Here we show that mutations in PERP, encoding a crucial component of desmosomes, cause both dominant and recessive human keratoderma. Heterozygosity for a C-terminal truncation, which produces a protein that appears to be unstably incorporated into desmosomes, causes Olmsted syndrome with severe periorificial and palmoplantar keratoderma in multiple unrelated kindreds. Homozygosity for an N-terminal truncation ablates expression and causes widespread erythrokeratoderma, with expansion of epidermal differentiation markers. Both exhibit epidermal hyperproliferation, immature desmosomes lacking a dense midline observed via electron microscopy, and impaired intercellular adhesion upon mechanical stress. Localization of other desmosomal components appears normal, which is in contrast to other conditions caused by mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins. These discoveries highlight the essential role of PERP in human desmosomes and epidermal homeostasis and further expand the heterogeneous spectrum of inherited keratinization disorders.