Netherton syndrome subtypes share IL-17/IL-36 signature with distinct IFN-α and allergic responses.

Barbieux C, Bonnet des Claustres M, Fahrner M, Petrova E, Tsoi LC, Gouin O, Leturcq F, Nicaise-Roland P, Bole C, Béziat V, Bourrat E, Schilling O, Gudjonsson JE, Hovnanian A.

Source : J Allergy Clin Immunol

2021 Sep 17

Pmid : 34543653

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare recessive skin disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 encoding the protease inhibitor LEKTI (lymphoepithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor). NS patients experience severe skin barrier defects, display inflammatory skin lesions, and have superficial scaling with atopic manifestations. They present with typical ichthyosis linearis circumflexa (NS-ILC) or scaly erythroderma (NS-SE).

OBJECTIVE: We used a combination of several molecular profiling methods to comprehensively characterize the skin, immune cells, and allergic phenotypes of NS-ILC and NS-SE patients.

METHODS: We studied a cohort of 13 patients comprising 9 NS-ILC and 4 NS-SE.

RESULTS: Integrated multiomics revealed abnormal epidermal proliferation and differentiation and IL-17/IL-36 signatures in lesion skin and in blood in both NS endotypes. Although the molecular profiles of NS-ILC and NS-SE lesion skin were very similar, nonlesion skin of each disease subtype displayed distinctive molecular features. Nonlesion and lesion NS-SE epidermis showed activation of the type I IFN signaling pathway, while lesion NS-ILC skin differed from nonlesion NS-ILC skin by increased complement activation and neutrophil infiltration. Serum cytokine profiling and immunophenotyping of circulating lymphocytes showed a TH2-driven allergic response in NS-ILC, whereas NS-SE patients displayed mainly a TH9 axis with increased CCL22/MDC and CCL17/TARC serum levels.

CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms IL-17/IL-36 as the predominant signaling axes in both NS endotypes and unveils molecular features distinguishing NS-ILC and NS-SE. These results identify new therapeutic targets and could pave the way for precision medicine of NS.

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