Prevalence and risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Morocco.
Sabri A, Quistrebert J, Naji Amrani H, Abid A, Zegmout A, Abderrhamani Ghorfi I, Souhi H, Boucaid A, Benali A, Abilkassem R, Kmari M, Hassani A, Lahcen B, Siah S, Schurr E, Boisson-Dupuis S, Casanova JL, Lahlou A, Laatiris A, Louzi L, Ouarssani A, Bourazza A, Aouragh A, Mustapha B, Messaoudi N, Agader A, Cobat A, Abel L, El Baghdadi J.
2019 Aug 18
Increased prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been observed among high-risk populations such as healthcare workers (HCWs). The results may depend on the method of LTBI assessment, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) and/or tuberculin skin test (TST). Here, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LTBI assessed by both IGRAs and TST in HCWs living in Morocco, a country with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) endemicity and high BCG vaccination coverage. HCWs were recruited in two Moroccan hospitals, Rabat and Meknes. All the participants underwent testing for LTBI by both IGRA (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube, QFT-GIT) and TST. Different combinations of IGRA and TST results defined the LTBI status. Risk factors associated with LTBI were investigated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model. The prevalence of LTBI among 631 HCWs (age range 18-60 years) varied from 40.7% (95%CI 36.9-44.5%) with QFT-GIT to 52% (95%CI 48.2-56.0%) with TST using a 10 mm cut-off. The highest agreement between QFT-GIT and TST (κ = 0.50; 95%CI 0.43-0.56) was observed with the 10 mm cut-off for a positive TST. For a definition of LTBI status using a double positive result for both QFT-GIT and TST, significant associations were found with the following risk factors: being male (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.40-3.49; p = 0.0007), belonging to age groups 35-44 years (OR = 2.43; 95%CI 1.45-4.06; p = 0.0007) and even more 45-60 years (OR = 4.81; 95%CI 2.72-8.52; p = 7.10-8), having a family history of TB (OR = 6.62; 95%CI 2.59-16.94; p = 8.10-5), and working at a pulmonology unit (OR = 3.64; 95%CI 1.44-9.23; p = 0.006). Smoking was associated with LTBI status when defined by a positive QFT-GIT result (OR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.12-3.21; p = 0.02). A high prevalence of LTBI was observed among HCWs in two Moroccan hospitals. Male gender, increased age, family history of TB, and working at a pulmonology unit were consistent risk factors associated with LTBI.